一份用于生产环境的 preseed 文件

Localization,如果你在中国,需求应该大致差不多。
Partitioning,最麻烦的一步,需要根据实际需求逐步调整,基本不可能一步到位,这里的规划是 150MB 的 /boot,20G 的 /var/;20G 的 /;8G 的 swap,剩余的全部给 /opt 做数据。实际上 swap 最后会分得 20G 的空间,多分点对系统几乎没什么影响,可以忽略。
Base system installation,对于 server 来说,只安装 ssh 服务。用户名的密码可以通过下面这个生成。其余的看文档。

$ printf "r00tme" | mkpasswd -s -m md5

### Localization
# Preseeding only locale sets language, country and locale.
d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US

# The values can also be preseeded individually for greater flexibility.
d-i debian-installer/language string en
d-i debian-installer/country string US
d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US.UTF-8
# Optionally specify additional locales to be generated.
#d-i localechooser/supported-locales en_US.UTF-8, nl_NL.UTF-8

# Keyboard selection.
# Disable automatic (interactive) keymap detection.
d-i console-setup/ask_detect boolean false
#d-i console-setup/modelcode string pc105
d-i console-setup/layoutcode string us
# To select a variant of the selected layout (if you leave this out, the
# basic form of the layout will be used):
#d-i console-setup/variantcode string dvorak

### Network configuration
# Disable network configuration entirely. This is useful for cdrom
# installations on non-networked devices where the network questions,
# warning and long timeouts are a nuisance.
#d-i netcfg/enable boolean false

# netcfg will choose an interface that has link if possible. This makes it
# skip displaying a list if there is more than one interface.
#d-i netcfg/choose_interface select auto

# To pick a particular interface instead:
d-i netcfg/choose_interface select eth0

# Any hostname and domain names assigned from dhcp take precedence over
# values set here. However, setting the values still prevents the questions
# from being shown, even if values come from dhcp.
#d-i netcfg/get_hostname string yun-phy8
#d-i netcfg/get_domain string whalecloud.com

# Disable that annoying WEP key dialog.
#d-i netcfg/wireless_wep string
# The wacky dhcp hostname that some ISPs use as a password of sorts.
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_hostname string radish

# If non-free firmware is needed for the network or other hardware, you can
# configure the installer to always try to load it, without prompting. Or
# change to false to disable asking.
#d-i hw-detect/load_firmware boolean true

### Network console
# Use the following settings if you wish to make use of the network-console
# component for remote installation over SSH. This only makes sense if you
# intend to perform the remainder of the installation manually.
#d-i anna/choose_modules string network-console
#d-i network-console/password password r00tme
#d-i network-console/password-again password r00tme

### Mirror settings
# If you select ftp, the mirror/country string does not need to be set.
#d-i mirror/protocol string ftp
d-i mirror/country string manual
d-i mirror/http/hostname string mirrors.sohu.com
#d-i mirror/http/hostname string cn.archive.ubuntu.com
d-i mirror/http/directory string /ubuntu
d-i mirror/http/proxy string

# Alternatively: by default, the installer uses CC.archive.ubuntu.com where
# CC is the ISO-3166-2 code for the selected country. You can preseed this
# so that it does so without asking.
#d-i mirror/http/mirror select CC.archive.ubuntu.com

# Suite to install.
#d-i mirror/suite string squeeze
# Suite to use for loading installer components (optional).
#d-i mirror/udeb/suite string squeeze
# Components to use for loading installer components (optional).
#d-i mirror/udeb/components multiselect main, restricted

### Clock and time zone setup
# Controls whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC.
d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true

# You may set this to any valid setting for $TZ; see the contents of
# /usr/share/zoneinfo/ for valid values.
d-i time/zone string Asia/Shanghai

# Controls whether to use NTP to set the clock during the install
d-i clock-setup/ntp boolean true
# NTP server to use. The default is almost always fine here.
#d-i clock-setup/ntp-server string ntp.example.com

#############################
### Partitioning
############################

#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sdc
#d-i partman-auto/method string regular
##
#d-i partman-lvm/device_remove_lvm boolean true
#d-i partman-md/device_remove_md boolean true
#d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true
#
#d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
#d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
#d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true
#
#
##partman-auto/text/atomic_scheme ::
#
#
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string                             \
##      boot-root ::                                             \
#        partman-auto/text/atomic_scheme ::                        \
#              150 50 200 ext4                                    \
#                      $primary{ }                                 \
#                      $bootable{ }                               \
#                      method{ format }                            \
#                      format{ }                                   \       
#                      use_filesystem{ }                            \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                           \
#                      mountpoint{ /boot } .                     \                          
#              20480 1000 20480 ext4                              \
#                      method{ format }                            \
#                      format{ }                                 \
#                      use_filesystem{ }                            \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                           \
#                      mountpoint{ /var } .                      \                         
#              20480  1000 20480 ext4                             \    
#                      method{ format }                             \
#                      format{ }                                 \    
#                      use_filesystem{ }                         \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                        \
#                      mountpoint{ / } .                            \
#              8096 1000 100% linux-swap                           \
#                      method{ swap }                            \
#                      format{ } .                                \
#              940000 2000 -1 ext4                                 \
#                      method{ format }                             \
#                      format{ }                                 \    
#                      use_filesystem{ }                         \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                        \
#                      mountpoint{ /opt } .
#
#
#
#
## If you just want to change the default filesystem from ext3 to something
## else, you can do that without providing a full recipe.
#d-i partman/default_filesystem string ext4
#
#
### Controlling how partitions are mounted
## The default is to mount by UUID, but you can also choose "traditional" to
## use traditional device names, or "label" to try filesystem labels before
## falling back to UUIDs.
#d-i partman/mount_style select uuid

##########
# part test
##########

# Alternatively, you may specify a disk to partition. If the system has only
# one disk the installer will default to using that, but otherwise the device
# name must be given in traditional, non-devfs format (so e.g. /dev/hda or
# /dev/sda, and not e.g. /dev/discs/disc0/disc).
# For example, to use the first SCSI/SATA hard disk:
d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sdc
# In addition, you'll need to specify the method to use.
# The presently available methods are:
# – regular: use the usual partition types for your architecture
# – lvm:     use LVM to partition the disk
# – crypto:  use LVM within an encrypted partition
d-i partman-auto/method string regular

# If one of the disks that are going to be automatically partitioned
# contains an old LVM configuration, the user will normally receive a
# warning. This can be preseeded away…
d-i partman-lvm/device_remove_lvm boolean true
# The same applies to pre-existing software RAID array:
d-i partman-md/device_remove_md boolean true
# And the same goes for the confirmation to write the lvm partitions.
d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true

# For LVM partitioning, you can select how much of the volume group to use
# for logical volumes.
#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string max
#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string 10GB
#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string 50%

# You can choose one of the three predefined partitioning recipes:
# – atomic: all files in one partition
# – home:   separate /home partition
# – multi:  separate /home, /usr, /var, and /tmp partitions
#d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe select atomic

# Or provide a recipe of your own…
# If you have a way to get a recipe file into the d-i environment, you can
# just point at it.
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe_file string /hd-media/recipe

# If not, you can put an entire recipe into the preconfiguration file in one
# (logical) line. This example creates a small /boot partition, suitable
# swap, and uses the rest of the space for the root partition:
d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string                         \
     boot-root ::                                            \
              150 150 150 ext4                                 \
                      $primary{ } $bootable{ }                \
                      method{ format } format{ }              \
                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext4 }    \
                      mountpoint{ /boot }                     \
              .                                               \
              20480 20480 20480 ext4                       \
                      method{ format } format{ }              \
                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext4 }    \
                      mountpoint{ / }                         \
              .                                               \
              20480 20480 20480 ext4                       \
                      method{ format } format{ }              \
                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext4 }    \
                      mountpoint{ /var }                         \
              .                                               \
              937000 937000 1000000 ext4                       \
                      method{ format } format{ }              \
                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext4 }    \
                      mountpoint{ /opt }                         \
              .                                               \
               8000  8000 50% linux-swap                          \
                      method{ swap } format{ }                \
              .

#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string                             \
#      boot-root ::                                             \
#              150 50 150 ext4                                    \
#                      $primary{ }                                 \
#                      $bootable{ }                               \
#                      method{ format }                            \
#                      format{ }                                   \       
#                      use_filesystem{ }                            \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                           \
#                      mountpoint{ /boot }                        \
#                .                                                  \                          
#              20480 1000 20480 ext4                              \
#                      method{ format }                            \
#                      format{ }                                 \
#                      use_filesystem{ }                            \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                           \
#                      mountpoint{ / }                            \
#                .                                               \                         
#              20480  1000 20480 ext4                             \    
#                      method{ format }                             \
#                      format{ }                                 \    
#                      use_filesystem{ }                         \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                        \
#                      mountpoint{ /var }                         \
#                .                                                \
#              8096 1000 8096 linux-swap                           \
#                      method{ swap }                            \
#                      format{ }                                    \
#                .                                                \
#              940000 2000 -1 ext4                                 \
#                      method{ format }                             \
#                      format{ }                                 \    
#                      use_filesystem{ }                         \
#                      filesystem{ ext4 }                        \
#                      mountpoint{ /opt }                         \
#                .
#

# If you just want to change the default filesystem from ext3 to something
# else, you can do that without providing a full recipe.
d-i partman/default_filesystem string ext4

# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation, provided
# that you told it what to do using one of the methods above.
d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true

# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation.
d-i partman-md/confirm boolean true
d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true

## Controlling how partitions are mounted
# The default is to mount by UUID, but you can also choose "traditional" to
# use traditional device names, or "label" to try filesystem labels before
# falling back to UUIDs.
d-i partman/mount_style select uuid

###############################
### Base system installation###
###############################
# Configure APT to not install recommended packages by default. Use of this
# option can result in an incomplete system and should only be used by very
# experienced users.
#d-i base-installer/install-recommends boolean false
# Always install the server kernel.
d-i base-installer/kernel/override-image    string linux-server

# The kernel image (meta) package to be installed; "none" can be used if no
# kernel is to be installed.
#d-i base-installer/kernel/image string linux-generic

### Account setup
# Skip creation of a root account (normal user account will be able to
# use sudo). The default is false; preseed this to true if you want to set
# a root password.
d-i passwd/root-login boolean false
# Alternatively, to skip creation of a normal user account.
d-i passwd/make-user boolean true

# Root password, either in clear text
#d-i passwd/root-password password r00tme
#d-i passwd/root-password-again password r00tme
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash.
#d-i passwd/root-password-crypted password [MD5 hash]

# To create a normal user account.
d-i passwd/user-fullname string hello
d-i passwd/username string hello
# Normal user's password, either in clear text
#d-i passwd/user-password password insecure
#d-i passwd/user-password-again password insecure
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash.
#d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
# Create the first user with the specified UID instead of the default.
#d-i passwd/user-uid string 1010
# The installer will warn about weak passwords. If you are sure you know
# what you're doing and want to override it, uncomment this.
#d-i user-setup/allow-password-weak boolean true

# The user account will be added to some standard initial groups. To
# override that, use this.
#d-i passwd/user-default-groups string audio cdrom video

# Set to true if you want to encrypt the first user's home directory.
d-i user-setup/encrypt-home boolean false

### Apt setup
# You can choose to install restricted and universe software, or to install
# software from the backports repository.
#d-i apt-setup/restricted boolean true
#d-i apt-setup/universe boolean true
#d-i apt-setup/backports boolean true
# Uncomment this if you don't want to use a network mirror.
#d-i apt-setup/use_mirror boolean false
# Select which update services to use; define the mirrors to be used.
# Values shown below are the normal defaults.
#d-i apt-setup/services-select multiselect security
#d-i apt-setup/security_host string security.ubuntu.com
#d-i apt-setup/security_path string /ubuntu

# Additional repositories, local[0-9] available
#d-i apt-setup/local0/repository string \
#       http://local.server/ubuntu squeeze main
#d-i apt-setup/local0/comment string local server
# Enable deb-src lines
#d-i apt-setup/local0/source boolean true
# URL to the public key of the local repository; you must provide a key or
# apt will complain about the unauthenticated repository and so the
# sources.list line will be left commented out
#d-i apt-setup/local0/key string http://local.server/key

# By default the installer requires that repositories be authenticated
# using a known gpg key. This setting can be used to disable that
# authentication. Warning: Insecure, not recommended.
#d-i debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated boolean true

### Package selection
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect
tasksel tasksel/first multiselect openssh-server
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect ubuntu-desktop
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect lamp-server, print-server
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect kubuntu-desktop

# Install the Ubuntu Server seed.
tasksel tasksel/force-tasks string server
# Individual additional packages to install
#d-i pkgsel/include string openssh-server build-essential
#d-i pkgsel/include string openssh-server
# Whether to upgrade packages after debootstrap.
# Allowed values: none, safe-upgrade, full-upgrade
#d-i pkgsel/upgrade select none

# Language pack selection
#d-i pkgsel/language-packs multiselect de, en, zh

# Policy for applying updates. May be "none" (no automatic updates),
# "unattended-upgrades" (install security updates automatically), or
# "landscape" (manage system with Landscape).
d-i pkgsel/update-policy select none

# Some versions of the installer can report back on what software you have
# installed, and what software you use. The default is not to report back,
# but sending reports helps the project determine what software is most
# popular and include it on CDs.
#popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean false

# By default, the system's locate database will be updated after the
# installer has finished installing most packages. This may take a while, so
# if you don't want it, you can set this to "false" to turn it off.
#d-i pkgsel/updatedb boolean true

### Boot loader installation
# Grub is the default boot loader (for x86). If you want lilo installed
# instead, uncomment this:
#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true
# To also skip installing lilo, and install no bootloader, uncomment this
# too:
#d-i lilo-installer/skip boolean true

# With a few exceptions for unusual partitioning setups, GRUB 2 is now the
# default. If you need GRUB Legacy for some particular reason, then
# uncomment this:
#d-i grub-installer/grub2_instead_of_grub_legacy boolean false

# This is fairly safe to set, it makes grub install automatically to the MBR
# if no other operating system is detected on the machine.
d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean true

# This one makes grub-installer install to the MBR if it also finds some other
# OS, which is less safe as it might not be able to boot that other OS.
d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean false

# Avoid that last message about the install being complete.
d-i finish-install/reboot_in_progress note

##################################################